MySQL vs. MongoDB

MongoDB is a NoSQL document-oriented database primarily used to store high-volume data. MongoDB came into existence around the mid-2000s. It is categorized under the NoSQL databases. MongoDB is maintained and owned by MongoDB Inc.

NoSQL databases are known for using dynamic schemas. This means that users can create records without defining the structure in the first instance with these databases. Besides, MongoDB is widely known for allowing users to change the record structures, thus adding new fields and deleting existing ones.

MySQL is one of the extensively used and popular RDBMS (Relational Database Management System). The name MySQL was derived from the co-founder’s daughter’s name “My” and “SQL .”MySQL is maintained and owned by Oracle Corporation.

MySQL is primarily based on a relational database model since it is a Relational Database Management System). This database model makes DB administration straightforward and flexible.

Unlike MongoDB, in MySQL, you have to pre-define the database schema based on your preferences and set rules to oversee the relationships between fields in the tables.

Key differences between MongoDB and MySQL

  • MySQL supports JOIN operations while MongoDB does not.
  • MySQL uses SQL (Structured Query Language) as the query language, while MongoDB uses JavaScript.
  • MongoDB users don’t need to specify or define the schema, while in MySQL, schema definition is vital to use tables and columns.
  • MongoDB is suitable for unstructured/structured data that entails rapid potential growth, while for MySQL, it properly suits structured data that needs a relational database.
  • MySQL represents data in tables and rows, while MongoDB represents JSON documents.
  • For enhanced security purposes and data security, MySQL is recommended, while MongoDB is recommended for cloud-based services.
  • Since no schema definition is required, MongoDB possesses less attack risk while designing, while MySQL risks SQL injection attacks.
  • Supported programming languages by MongoDB are C++ and C, while MySQL supported languages are JavaScript, C, and C++.
  • MongoDB contains a pre-defined schema that can be followed, defined, and adhered to. Also, when in need of different documents in a single collection, you can have other structures. However, since MySQL uses SQL (Structured Query Language) to access the database, the schema can’t be changed.

Pros of using MongoDB

The major pros of using MongoDB are highlighted below:

1.     Change friendly design

Are you used to encountering complications such as bringing your application or site down for you to change your data structure? If that is the case, then MongoDB has a solution for you.

Thanks to MongoDB developers who spent a lot of time, effort, and resources designing and deploying efficient processes and improving on the already established mistakes. The recent versions of MongoDB don’t experience downtime needed to alter schemas as one can start writing new data to MongoDB at any time without causing any concern to the already running operations.

2.     Quick and easy horizontal scale-out

MongoDB is primarily designed to be distributed database. With this database, you can create clusters using real-time replication. Besides, you can shard extensive throughput collections across various clusters to sustain the scaler horizontally and sustain performance.

3.     Flexible document schemas

With this feature, you can virtually allow all data structure types to be easily manipulated and modeled. JSON inspired the famous MongoDB BSON data format, and it will enable us to have more than one object in one collection that contains different fieldsets.

MongoDB also supports the creation of explicit schemas and data validation to prevent it from losing control. The document flexibility feature is an essential asset while operating with real-world data and executing changes in the required environment.

4.     Powerful querying and analytics

MongoDB has been designed to ease data access, manipulation, and retrieval without re-join transactions. Also, this database is up to the task when called upon to work with complex querying data.

The MQL (MongoDB Query Language) is a powerful full-featured language that allows users to query deep and perform complex pipelines analytics with a few JSON-like MQL lines.

5.     Code-native data access

The most known and used database always confines its users to use heavy wrappers such as ORMs (Object Relational Mappers) to insert data into the Object form used by programs. However, MongoDB’s wise decision to represent and store data in document format means you can quickly access it from any language as long as the data structures are native to that language, such as associative arrays in JavaScript.

Pros of using MySQL

The major pros of using MySQL are highlighted below:

1.     High-Performance

MySQL has a distinct storage-engine mechanism that facilitates the configuration of the MySQL database server. This enhances flawless performance. MySQL is well designed to meet all demanding tasks while still working at optimum speed. Most demanding applications and websites, such as the eCommerce websites that query more than a million data bytes a day, still don’t find any complications while using MySQL.

2.     On-Demand scalability

Unlike other RDMS’s, MySQL offers superb and unmatched scalability to match the deeply embedded application management using small footprints where large data volumes are involved. This feature is one of the five-star rated features of MySQL. Besides, this feature is a charm since it allows easy customization of eCommerce businesses with unique DB-server requirements.

3.     Data security

MySQL is the most reliable and secure database management system for popular web apps like Facebook, WordPress, Joomla, and Drupal. Transactional processing and data security support are part of the recent features incorporated in the newer versions of MySQL. Therefore, if you plan to put up an eCommerce website, we recommend using MySQL.

4.     Complete workflow control

MySQL means usability from day one, with the average installation and download time being less than thirty minutes. Irrespective of the platform (Windows, Linux, macOS, Unix) you use, MySQL remains to offer comprehensive solutions by providing automated self-management features, making database administration much more effortless and controllable.

5.     Reduced ownership cost

Most enterprises have saved a lot when migrating databases to MySQL. Ease of management and dependability is one of the features in MySQL. These features saved the time incurred on troubleshooting and wasted trying to figure out downtime and performance-related complications.

6.     Open-source flexibility

MySQL’s enterprise indemnification and open-source support have brought about the end to the open-source problems’ worries and fears. Improved all-around security, trusted software, and secure processing provided by MySQL have combined to offer users effective transactional value for large projects. While enhancing the end-user experience, maintenance, up-gradation, and debugging have also been made fast and easy.

7.     Comprehensive transactional support

A recent statistical review has indicated that MySQL tops the robust transactional DB engines lists available in the database world. You are guaranteed complete data integrity with enhanced features like consistent, durable transactional support, complete atomic, unrestricted row-level rocking, and multi-version transactional support. Besides, you are also guaranteed instant deadlock identification via the referential integrity enforced on the server.

8.     All-time uptime

You are assured of 24X7 uptime when using MySQL. Besides this, RDBMS offers a wide range of high-availability solutions such as master/slave replication and cluster servers configuration.

MongoDB vs MySQL comparison table

TypeFeaturesMongoDBMySQL
DeploymentOS Multi-platformMulti-platform
DevelopersMongoDB IncOracle Corporation
SchemaFlexibleRigid
Cloud, Web, SaaSYes Yes
IntegrityReferential integrityNoYes
Durability/Data storageYes Yes
AtomicityConditionalYes
TransactionsNoYes
Consistency Yes Yes
Integrity modelBASEACID
IsolationNoYes
Design & FeaturesDevelopment/CreationYesNo
Database ConversionYesNo
BackupYesYes
MonitoringYesYes
Unicode YesYes
Performance analysisYesNo
MapReduce YesNo
Relational interfaceYesNo
Query longVolatile memory file systemSQL
VirtualizationYesNo
Data storageJSONRows and Columns
QueriesYesNo
IndexingGeospatial indexesYesNo
Composite keysYesYes
Graph supportNoNo
Full-text searchYesYes
Secondary indexesYesYes
SystemProgramming languageJava, C, C++Java, C, C++, NodeJs, C#, Python
DistributionReplicationYesYes
Horizontal scalabilityYesConditional
Data migrationYesYes
CAPCPCA
Replication mode

Master-SlaveMaster-Master Slave
Shared nothing architectureYesYes
ShardingYesYes

Cons of MongoDB

Below are some of the notable cons of using MongoDB:

  • Transactions in MongoDB are complex
  • There are no stored functions and procedure provisions in MongoDB. Therefore, it makes it hard to implement business logic at the DB level, which is quite simple when using Relational Database Management System (RDBMS)
  • Compared to RDBMS systems, MongoDB has a less strong ACID (Atomic, Consistency, Isolation, and Durability)

Cons of MySQL

Below are some of the notable cons of using MySQL:

  • In MySQL, you cannot cache stored procedures
  • While using MySQL, a server crash could result in a system catalog corruption
  • System catalog related transactions are not ACID compliant
  • MySQL tables used for procedures are mostly pre-locked

Conclusion

This article has comprehensively covered MySQL vs. MongoDB. The article has looked at all the differences, comparisons, pros, and cons. If you found it helpful, leave a remark via the comments section.

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